Finding your Irish Ancestors

Irish Genealogy Package

Researching your Irish roots can be complicated since historical data can be fragmented and there are numerous scattered resources. Many hours can be lost trying to get a handle on tracing these resources or a lot of money may be spent getting someone to do the research for you. With the Irish Genealogy Kit you can save a lot of chasing and begin your search for your ancestors immediately! The document outlines the different resources at your disposal to allow you to access Irish genealogy records for tracing your Irish Family Tree. It is structured in a step by step manner whereby the most readily available resources (i.e. those on the internet) are outlined first. This makes the process more user friendly, whereby if you find information about your ancestors early in your search, it makes subsequent searches of offline resources in Ireland and Worldwide much more straightforward. Continue reading...

Irish Genealogy Package Summary


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Highly Recommended

Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

In addition to being effective and its great ease of use, this eBook makes worth every penny of its price.

Genealogy with Success

There are no guarantees that you will be able to trace your lines successfully. But certainly, out of the 1,024 direct ancestors in 10 generations, there are some whom you can trace to their entry into America. Be patient and follow all clues. Those who achieve the most success constantly follow all leads church records, obituaries, vital records, war files, everything that could have a record created about their ancestor. They constantly restudy the material, as new data is found, to glean clues they may have missed previously. If you are systematic and use sound research techniques, you will be rewarded. No one is pushing. If you need to take two years off from the search to complete your college education, no one is demanding that you write genealogy letters. When you are ready, genealogy is there for you to pursue.

Reading Nietzsches Genealogy

This book offers a reading of Friedrich Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morality, the work which has come to be regarded, especially in the English-speaking world, as his most sustained philosophical achievement, his masterpiece, and the most vital of his writings for any student of Nietzsche, of ethics, or of the history of modern thought. I shall refer to other texts by Nietzsche, especially his earlier published works Beyond Good and Evil, The Gay Science, and Daybreak, for elucidations of what is at stake in the Genealogy. But the centre of gravity is always the interpretation of the Genealogy itself, and the questions a reading of it raises the nature of those modern moral values that locate goodness in selflessness, in compassion towards others, and in guilty hostility towards one's own instincts the psychology and history that generated these values their contribution to sickness and health the complexity of human feelings and drives the nature of philosophical truth-seeking...

Helm S Family Research Page

Helm is the Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer for, Inc. He's the creator and maintainer of the award-winning Helm's Genealogy Toolbox, Helm Helms Family Research Page, and a variety of other Web sites. Matthew speaks at national genealogical conventions and lectures to genealogical and historical societies. Matthew holds an A.B. in History and an M.S. in Library and Information Science from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. April Leigh Helm is the President of, Inc. April lectures on genealogy and other topics for various conferences and groups. She holds a B.S. in Journalism and an Ed.M. in Higher Education Administration from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Together, the Helms have coauthored several books in addition to the five editions of Genealogy Online For Dummies. They include Family Tree Maker For Dummies, Your Official America Online Guide to Genealogy Online, and Get Your...

Using Computer Programs for Genealogy Record Keeping

If you have a computer, consider using a computer genealogy program to manage your genealogy information. These programs give you great flexibility in compiling and After entering the data into the computer once, you can arrange it in many ways. All the programs use a family group sheet format to keep track of your information, and all print pedigree charts. The differences in genealogy programs lie in the amount of information they allow you to enter and what you can do with that information once it is entered. The programs range from very simple ones, which are merely an organized collection of names with the capacity to print basic forms, to very sophisticated programs, which produce customized reports and allow extensive research notes, footnotes, and bibliographies to help you produce complete family histories. Newer programs incorporate multimedia and provide tools to connect you to the Internet and to put your genealogy on your own Web page.

Online Subscription Databases Goldmines of Genealogy

Some of your ancestors may have been prospectors. You know the type they roamed from place to place in search of the mother lode. Often, they may have found a small nugget here or there, but they never seemed to locate that one mine that provided a lifetime supply of gold. When searching on the Internet, you become the prospector. You pan through results from search engines only to find small nuggets of information here and there. However, don't lose hope. There may be some goldmines waiting for you if you can only stumble upon the right site to dig and the right site may be in the form of an online subscription database.

On the Genealogy of Morals Beyond Genealogy and Morals

The nominal subject of Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morals is the investigation of the origins of our moral values. While the book tenaciously pursues the topic of its title without disintegrating into a loosely related collection of aphorisms (as some of Nietzsche's other books tend to do), it nevertheless deals with more than morality, and more than genealogy. Like Nietzsche's work in general, this book repeatedly returns to issues and hypotheses that constitute a fundamental and integrating core of his entire philosophic enterprise. One aspect of this enterprise is the construction of a theory about the ultimate goal of human behavior. The central thesis of this theory that a will to power is the deepest and most general motive of human behavior, that the ultimate goal of all human striving is the acquisition and increase of power. Nietzsche's theory of the will to power is not only psychological but axiological the will to power is put forward not only as the ultimate...

Finding your ancestors in census records

Imagine that you're ready to look for your ancestors in census records. You hop in the car and drive to the nearest library, archives, or Family History Center. On arrival, you find the microfilm roll for the area where you believe your ancestors lived. You then go into a dimly lit room, insert the microfilm into the reader, and begin your search. After a couple hours of rolling the microfilm, the back pain begins to set in, cramping in your hands becomes more severe, and the handwritten census documents become blurry as your

Create a mosaicised photogra ancestors and more with the

Your computer is a valuable tool in researching your family history, and we want to help you make the most of it. The issue 21 CD brings you a great program for using with your digital images. Easy Mosaic 5.06 Home is full software for the PC enabling you to turn your collection of digital images into fascinating mosaics. Plus we have The Army List 1832 - very handy for those looking into military ancestors - along with some interesting Essex resources. If you're reading The A-Z of Genealogy Websites book included with this issue and want to visit any of the sites without having to type in those long, confusing addresses, don't worry, all the links are provided here.

Counties Have Ancestors

Before you go too far in planning your trip, be sure you are headed for the right county. Counties are the political subdivisions of states. Their current boundaries are not necessarily the ones they've always had. New counties were carved out of one or more old ones, or counties were absorbed by adjacent counties. Disputes and or new surveys redrew the lines between counties. Why should you care Because the records of your ancestors are in the counties as they were when they lived there. To find parent counties, consult Everton's Handy Book for Genealogists or Ancestry's Redbook. For boundary changes, see William Thorndale and William Dollarhide's Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790-1920.

Are We There Yet Researching Where There Was to Your Ancestors

What did there mean for your ancestors You have to answer this question to know where to look for genealogical information. These days, a family that lives in the same general area for more than two or three generations is rare. If you're a member of such a family, you may be in luck when it comes to So how do you find out where your ancestors lived In this section, we look at several resources you can use to establish their location, including using known records, interviewing relatives, consulting gazetteers, looking at maps, using GPS devices, and charting locations using geographical software. As we go through these resources, we use a real-life example to show how the resources can be used together to solve a research problem finding the location of the final resting place of Matthew's great-great-grandfather.

Mapping your ancestors

After you find out where the place is located, it's time to dig out the maps. Maps can be an invaluable resource in your genealogical research. Not only do maps help you track your ancestors, but they also enhance your published genealogy by illustrating some of your findings.

Researching African Ancestry

It's a common misconception that tracing African ancestry is impossible. In the past decade or so, much has been done to dispel that perception. If your ancestors lived in the United States, you can use many of the same research techniques and records (census schedules, vital records, and other primary resources) that genealogists of other ethnic groups consult back to 1870. Prior to 1870, your research resources become more limited, depending on whether your ancestor was a freedman or a slave. To make that determination, you may want to interview some of your relatives. They often possess oral traditions that can point you in the right direction. If your ancestors served in the American Civil War, they may have service and pension records. You can begin a search for service records in an index to Civil War records of the United States Colored Troops or, if your ancestor joined a state regiment, in an Adjutant General's report. (An Adjutant General's report is a published account of...

Transcribed records pertaining to ancestors with African roots

Many genealogists recognize the benefits of making transcribed and digitized records available for other researchers. More and more of these Web sites are popping up every day. A few Web sites have transcribed records that are unique to the study of African ancestry online. Following are some examples Although some of these schedules don't identify ancestors by name, they're useful if you know the name of the slave owner.

Genealogy as Critique

I think it is significant, then, that in the preface to the Genealogy Nietzsche avoids the earlier problems of The Gay Science and does not suggest that his genealogy of morals is just a perspective. Calling genealogy an art of reading and interpretation rather than a science does not mean that anything goes. On the contrary, he says no to every aspect of Paul Ree's genealogy, thus implying he believes genealogies can be wrong, and that his own is better than any alternatives of which he knows. Of course, there are different ways for genealogies to be wrong. They may be wrong by not corresponding to the facts, but they may also be wrong by being shallow and leaving important questions unexplained. For instance, Ree and Spencer take for granted the value of altruism, without asking the question why altruism should be morally valued. Nietzsche's criticism of Ree is reminiscent of Kant's complaint that teleological, heteronomous moral theories (like Hume's, for instance) do not explain...

Fitting into Your Genes Molecular Genealogy

Your cheek, send the sample off to a lab, the results are analyzed, and presto You find the identity of that long-lost ancestor. Although the science behind molecular genealogy traces its roots back to identifying individuals from crime scenes, it is not advanced to the point where you can simply take the test and watch your entire genealogy unfold. Although it is just one of many tools to use in documenting your research, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) testing holds great potential for the future of genealogy. You may be familiar with the use of DNA testing in identifying the remains of Nicholas, the last Czar of Russia, and his family the debate about the last resting place of Christopher Columbus or the true fate of Jesse James. The methods used in these investigations are the same methods that you can use to compliment your documentary research.

Irish Family Research

This is a huge site that contains around 60 searchable databases aimed at providing Irish ancestry researchers with a valuable online resource. The key to this site is that many of the databases are exclusive as they contain information transcribed from original sources obtained by the sites' developers. These include many 19th century residential and trade directories, school registers, teachers' lists, newspaper transcriptions and many other unusual sources. The databases are divided by region too making it easy for visitors to hone their research to relevant areas.

Genealogy and Relative Validity

Can reconstruct with some confidence the relation of genealogy to his revised critical method. Because genealogical interpretations figure so prominently in his later books Twilight offers a (revised) genealogy of modernity, The Antichrist(ian) genealogies of Christ and Christianity, and Ecce Homo a genealogy of Nietzsche himself it seems plausible to assume that Nietzsche intended his genealogies to contribute to the critical standpoint that these books confidently presuppose. Genealogy, I propose, supplies the empirical case history that enables the immoral philosopher to detect and interpret physiological symptoms, and to do so more accurately than priests and moralists. Genealogy thus informs Nietzsche's later writings with the validity that he is entitled to claim for them.

Genealogy file formats

BAK A native format of Personal Ancestral File. You can also convert these into GEDCOM files. DAT Another native format of Personal Ancestral File. Again, convertible to GEDCOM. GED The GEDCOM format (the latest of which is version 5.5) is the standard genealogy format. Standing for GEnealogical Data COMmunications, most family history software can read and write the format, so you can swap data between applications. See the guidelines at www.ancestry. com oft gedhelp.asp for more assistance in converting files to the GEDCOM format.

Ancestrycom Learning Center library archive.asp Although is well known for its collection of databases and digitized images, perhaps equally of value is its little known collection of articles, columns, and other online resources to assist genealogists. The Learning Center contains thousands of articles (taken from multiple sources, including Ancestry magazine, Genealogical Computing, and online columnists) divided into categories that include Genealogy Products Current Events Historical Context

Genealogy Today Getting Started

Genealogy Today's Getting Started resources include tips for beginning your research, hints for organizing your findings and planning research, articles on specific types of documents you're looking for, a searchable knowledgebase (online database), and a recommendation for a tutorial CD that demonstrates how to research. (Please be aware that you must purchase the CD.) Also there are links to other parts of the Genealogy Today site, which has a plethora of general genealogical resources such as podcasts, news, and book and record transcriptions.

Getting Started in Genealogy and Family History

The GENUKI (U.K. and Ireland Genealogy) Web site provides a list of helpful hints for starting out in genealogical research. The extensive list covers these elements deciding the aim of your research, using Family History Centers, joining a genealogical society, tracing immigrants, and organizing your information. You also find a list of reference materials should you want to read more about the topics GENUKI discusses.

Genealogy As History Catastrophized

Two years after the appearance of the first edition of Otherwise than Being Levinas read a paper entitled 'The Model of the West' in which the requirement of another genealogy is again formulated as an alternative to contemporary Nietzscheanism.16 The West professes the historical relativity of values and their contestation. But perhaps it takes every moment too seriously, too quickly calling them historical, leaving to this history the right both to judge values and to sink into relativity. Whence the incessant revaluation of values, an incessant collapse of values, an incessant genealogy of morals. A history without permanence or a history without sanctity. Historie and history either as ecstatically existed Geschichte or as the genealogy of Absolute Spirit. In the dramatic enigma of the excluded third of diachronic history divine ontology cannot be distinguished from divine meontology. Consistent with his warning that the enigmatic in his meaning has nothing to do with knowledge or...

Genealogy and the Value of Moral Values

Nietzsche introduces the task of genealogy by saying that 'we need a knowledge of the conditions and circumstances out of which moral values have grown, under which they have developed and shifted' (GM, Preface, 6). But he juxtaposes this task of discovering origins with another, more emphatically expressed 'we need a critique of moral values, for once the value of these values must itself be called into question' 'what value do they themselves have Have they inhibited or furthered human flourishing up until now ' (GM, Preface, 6, 3). A prime methodological question facing the reader of the Genealogy is, therefore How does the account of the origins of moral values relate to the task of evaluating them Nietzsche more than once gives a succinct answer to that question. In Ecce Homo he calls the Genealogy's essays psychological studies 'preliminary' to the revaluation of all values, and in the Preface to the Genealogy he describes 'hypothesizing about the origin of morality', his own...

The Scottish Genealogy Society

Genealogy Tree

The Seeking pages in Your Family Tree are a place where you can turn when you've hit the proverbial brickwall when researching your ancestors. Write in and see if fellow readers can help you track down more information about that illusive great-greatgrandfather's brother. The subject of your enquiry doesn't have to be a person, though. You can request information about a building, business or barge anything that you're having trouble with in your research. If you have a photograph and you want help identifying the subjects, send it in with the clues you have.

The Fine Art Of Tracing Your Artist Ancestors

Wink- .ill manner of local anil national reeords a tit I lists scrutinizes, hitherto lamilv historians ami those with an interest tti one name stud ies have largL'lv neglected the possibility ul tracking down their artistic Itirbearers, Graeme Whitehall offers a practical, easy to follow guide to navigating the often obscure and disparate sources and resources of the art world qan reveal your Artist Ancestors and their work. To order your copy of the book The Fine Art of Tracing Your Artist Ancestors send a cheque for 9,95 (inc P&P) to PO BOX 359, HULL, HUB 9ZZ or order online at

Where to begin searching for genealogical information on Hispanic ancestors

I Mexico This mailing list is for anyone with an interest in genealogy in Mexico. To subscribe to the mailing list, send a message to mexico-l-request with only the word subscribe in the body of the message. i Paraguay This mailing list is for anyone with an interest in genealogy in Paraguay. To subscribe to the mailing list, send a message to i Venezuela This mailing list is for anyone with an interest in genealogy in Venezuela. Send a message to venezuela-l-request with only the word subscribe in the body of the message to subscribe to the mailing list.

Genealogy and Symptomatology

In order to appreciate Nietzsche's idiosyncratic adaptation of genealogy to the history of morality, we must situate genealogy in the shifting context of his critical philosophical project. In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche claims as his critical task the preparation of a typology of morals (BGE 186). 1 In Toward a Genealogy of Morals , he explains that all the sciences have from now on to prepare the way for . . . the solution of the problem of value , the determination of the order of rank Rangordnung among values (GM I 17n.). Nietzsche apparently understands this ambitious typological project as a prelude to the revaluation of values to be executed by the philosophers of the future (BGE 44). Nietzsche's interest in semiotics arises in conjunction with his campaign to emigrate beyond good and evil. Although his distaste for morality is well known, the precise focus of his enmity is perhaps less clear. His attack on Western morality is specifically directed not toward its normative...

Genealogy Of Nihilism

Genealogy of Nihilism rereads Western history in the light of nihilistic logic, which pervades two millennia of Western thought and is coming to fruition in our present age in a virulently dangerous manner. From Parmenides to Alain Badiou, via Plotinus, Avicenna, Duns Scotus, Ockham, Descartes, Spinoza, Kant, Hegel, Heidegger, Sartre, Lacan, Deleuze and Derrida, a genealogy of nothingness can be witnessed in development, with devastating consequences for the way we live. As a dualistic logic, nihilism has come to ground existence not in life but in the absences beyond it. We who are, are no longer the living, but rather the living dead in the death-wielding modern approach to knowledge, we are all reduced to cadavers. The Trinitarian theology of Genealogy of Nihilism offers a counterargument that is sustained by nihilism even as it defeats it. In Christ's ontological synthesis of divine spirit and incarnation, and in the miraculous logic of the resurrection, theology reunites presence...

Genealogy and Immanent Critique

As we have seen, Nietzsche's emigration beyond good and evil contributes to his campaign to eliminate the surplus suffering engendered by Western morality. For an example of his immoral critical method in practice, let us turn now to the Genealogy . Before interpreting the ascetic ideal and Western morality as symptomatic of a certain form of life, Nietzsche must first gain access to an empirical case history. He thus sets out in the Genealogy to articulate a more detailed account of the history and development of our values within the framework of justification that asceticism provides. As we have seen, Nietzschean genealogy gains hermeneutic access to the historical phenomenon in question via its parasitic inhabitation of the dominant interpretation of that phenomenon. Rather than import some external or transcendent standard of evaluation, Nietzsche takes as his starting point the dominant interpretation of Western morality, as reflected in the history and practice of Christianity....

Genealogy as Hermeneutics

While Nietzsche's rhetoric sometimes leads him into logical corners he knows he should avoid, his understanding of genealogy contains other ways of avoiding such corners. What I wish to argue is that if he had fully developed his account of the nature of interpretation, he would have come up with the notion of the hermeneutic circle. And since circles have no corners, he could not have backed into the logical difficulties he encounters when he tries to provide metaphilosophical justifications of his genealogical method. What I have just described is close to Hume's position that we will never get in touch with the secret springs of the world. How he even knew there were secret springs if causation is only a subjective and never an objective property is, of course, the question Kant raised. I think that genealogy ought not to be defended by appeal to perspectivism. Perspectivism is too weak a justification for genealogy, because the genealogist does claim to be capturing the phenomenon...

Swimming through Caribbean genealogy

To be successful in researching Caribbean genealogy, you have to be aware of the history of the particular island that you are researching. Some islands will have a variety of record sets that may differ significantly depending upon what country was in control of the island.

Transcribed records for Hispanic ancestors

Transcribed records are also available on sites that focus on Hispanic ancestors. For example, you can view transcribed records from the 1757, 1780, 1791, 1823, and 1860 censuses of the village of Guerrero in Mexico (along with baptismal records) at gallegjj viejo.html.

Your Ancestors Here There and Everywhere

Finding out where your ancestors lived Locating places on maps and in history Using maps in your research Getting information from local sources Geography played a major role in the lives of our ancestors. It often determined where they lived, worked, and migrated (as early settlers often migrated to lands that were similar to their home state or country). It can also play a major role in how you research your ancestor. Concentrating on where your ancestor lived can often point you to area-specific record sets or provide clues about where to research next. In this chapter, we look at several ways to use geographical resources to provide a boost to your family history research.

Aboutcom Genealogy One Stop Beginners Genealogy

If you are looking for information on a wide range of genealogical topics, hop on over to the Genealogy site. The One-Stop Beginner's Genealogy section of the site has a large collection of articles that are categorized by subject Articles and Tips, Learning Corner, and Tools and How-To. There are many subcategories under each of these topics as well. Some of the resources within these categories include information on surname origins, mistakes you can avoid, a genealogy chat room, and publishing your family history.

Special ethnic pages about African ancestry

Many Web sites include information on a particular subset of individuals of African ancestry. Here are some you may want to visit i The African-Native Genealogy home page provides details on the To find additional sites containing unique information about researching your African ancestry, visit a comprehensive genealogical site and look under the appropriate category to review a list of links to such sites or use a genealogical search engine.

For Genealogy

Recently, I was surprised to discover that I have Scottish roots. I'm still coming to terms with it However it does mean that soon I may be using the country's recently announced 'one-stop-shop for genealogy'. While in Scotland one 'online partner' has been chosen to make this material available, and the will is there to bring the record keepers together at one location, Edinburgh's proposed genealogy campus, in England and Wales we're seeing the old records being licensed out hither and thither. After the server crash and eight-month delay in getting the 1901 Census website online and working in 2002, The National Archives (it was the Public Record Office at the time) seems reluctant to take on projects of a similar scale, lest it end up with egg on its face once again., and other companies, have got licensing partnerships and are going ahead making censuses and other national documents available via tgheir commercial websites. The General Register Office for England...

Why Genealogy

Your friend is excited about the family reunion and the chart showing his descent from Pocahontas. You've just listened again to your mother's oft-recited tale of her grandmother's nomad existence with her itinerant preacher father. And this morning, when filling in your child's baby book, you realized how little you know of your family. Perhaps it was Alex Haley's Roots or a PBS series on ancestors that made you regret that you didn't quiz Aunt Mabel before she died about your French-Canadian antecedents. Whatever the reason, you now long to know about the people whose bloodlines you share. Is it possible, you wonder, to find your roots

Ancestrycom ( is a commercial site that contains information on billions of names and adds new databases daily. The site has some free content in its Learning Center section, including articles and tips for researching. But to access the text of the databases, you must be a member. does allow you the opportunity to test drive the subscription service in the form of a two-week free trial. The extensive collections at the site are sorted into various categories including census, military, immigration, newspapers, and directories.

Genealogy Help

w A personal genealogy site set up by Duncan Weir as a result of his own research into his family history in the Somerset area. It has its own forums with users sharing information on local areas plus there are separate sections for local villages. Not all are populated yet but it's an interesting idea.

And Genealogy

KIRKCUDBRIGHT FAMILY HISTORY AND GENEALOGY w families default.htm A site dedicated to this Scottish fishing town that's based in the ancient district of Galloway in southern Scotland. The site has a family history section providing information on local history and how to research your local ancestry. It also includes links to other relevant sites. KIRKUDBRIGHT A rich online resource for anyone with ancestry in this area of Scotland

Ancestors ancestors Ancestors a unique multi-part television series about genealogy has a companion Web site that contains several resources for beginners. The first Ancestors series premiered in 1997, and the second series was released in 2000. The companion Web site has information on various types of records and sources that you collect as a genealogist, tips from other researchers, and a resource guide with locations of genealogy resources in each state. There's also information about the television series, a teacher's guide, and PDF charts you can download if you want to use paper copies when researching.

Uk Genealogy

This is a simple site that enables UK users to look up surname lists by county for the English section, Exchanges for Scotland, mailing lists for Wales and societies in Ireland. There is also a Places to Search section with a search engine powered by and a few articles on either the census, parish records, probate or emigration.

Jesus Genealogy

400-year-old biblical genealogy rediscovered in Aberystwyth remarkable 17th century manuscript detailing Jesus' genealogy has come to light in Wales. Around 50 years ago, the independent school Llandovery College placed some of its archives in the hands of the National Library of Wales in Aberystwyth. The manuscript came to light when the current warden of the college, Peter Hogan, asked to see what was in the collection. The document was compiled in the 17 th century by a William Spenser, about whom nothing is yet known. It purports to present a complete genealogy for Jesus and other biblical figures, as well as biographical references to old Bible stories, and there is even an index to the people named through its 594 pages. The manuscript was bought for 13 in the early 19 th century by the founder of the college, Thomas Phillips.

Genealogy 4 U

w A personal website aimed at helping researchers looking for ancestors in Genealogy Directory GENEALOGY.COM w A slick US-centric site that enables you to start your tree from scratch online by hosting your family tree records for you and showing you how to research for more ancestors. There are message boards too plus a range of products and services that can be bought from the site, including family tree software.

Planning for Genealogical Success

Ll great projects start with a plan, right Starting a genealogical project is no exception. A well thought-out plan can help you make efficient use of your time and keep you focused on the goals that you have set for a particular research session. Now, we realize that not everyone enjoys coming up with a plan. Finding your ancestors is the fun part not the planning. So, to help speed things along, we've come up with a basic process that we hope helps you make the most of your research time.

Planning your research

The Internet puts the world at your fingertips. Discovering all the wonderful online resources that exist makes you feel like a kid in a candy store. You click around from site to site with wide eyes, amazed by what you see, tempted to record everything for your genealogy whether it relates to one of your family lines or not. Because of the immense wealth of information available to you, putting together a research plan before going online is very important it can save you a lot of time and frustration by keeping you focused. Tens of thousands of genealogical sites are on the Internet. If you don't have a good idea of exactly what you're looking for to fill in the blanks in your genealogy, you can get lost online. Getting lost is even easier when you see a name that looks familiar and start following its links, only to discover hours later (when you finally get around to pulling out the genealogical notes you already had) that you've been tracking the wrong person and family line. Now...

Selecting a grandparents name

Having trouble selecting a name Why not try one of your grandparent's names Using a grandparent's name can have several benefits. If you find some information on an individual but you aren't sure whether it's relevant to your family, you can check with relatives to see whether they know any additional information that can help you. This may also spur interest in genealogy in other family members who can then assist you with some of your research burden or produce some family documents that you never knew existed. With a name in hand, you're ready to see how much information is currently available on the Internet about that individual. Because this is just one step in a long journey to discover your family history, keep in mind that you want to begin slowly. Don't try to examine every resource right from the start. You're more likely to become overloaded with information if you try to find too many resources too quickly. Your best approach is to begin searching a few sites until you...

Coming to Your Census

A lot of key dates in a person's life are recorded in vital records (see Sifting Through Birth, Death, Marriage, and Divorce Records, earlier in this chapter, for more details). However, unless your ancestors were consistently encountering lifeevents that resulted in numerous vital records, there will still be some gaps to fill in your research. Census records are an excellent resource in the United States for filling in these gaps. Census records are periodic counts of a population by a government or organization. These counts can be regular (such as every ten years) or special one-time counts made for a specific reason. Some censuses contain just statistical information others contain names and additional demographic information.

Other census records in the United States

Federal census records are not the only population enumerations you'll find for ancestors in the United States. You may also find census records at the state, territorial, and local level for certain areas of the United States. For example, the state of Illinois has federal census records for 1810 (one county), 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890 (small fragment), 1900, 1910, and 1920. In addition to these, Illinois has two territorial censuses taken in 1810 and 1818 and eight state censuses taken in 1820, 1825, 1830, 1835, 1840, 1845, 1855, and 1865. Some city-census enumerations were taken in the 1930s, and a military census was taken in 1862. Other states that have state or territorial census returns include Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Non-federal census records can often help you piece together your...

Land Ho Researching Land Records

In the past, an individual's success could be measured by the ownership of land. The more land your ancestors possessed, the more powerful and wealthy they were. This concept often encouraged people to migrate to new countries in the search for land. Land records may tell you where your ancestor lived prior to purchasing the land, spouse's name, and the names of children, grandchildren, parents, or siblings. To use land records effectively, however, you need to have a general idea of where your ancestors lived and possess a little background information on the history of the areas in which they lived. Land records are especially useful for tracking the migration of families in the United States before the 1790 Census.

Visiting Libraries Archives and Historical Societies

Inevitably a time will come when you need to visit public (and possibly private) libraries in the areas where your ancestor lived. Although local history sections are not generally targeted toward genealogists, the information you can find there is quite valuable. For example, public libraries often have city directories and phone books, past issues of newspapers (good for obituary hunting), and old map collections. Libraries may also have extensive collections of local history books that can give you a flavor of what life was like for your ancestor in that area. And, of course, some libraries do have genealogy sections that have all sorts of goodies to help you locate records and discover interesting stories about your family. For a list of libraries with online catalogs, see The Library Index site at . A third place to find additional information is at a historical society. Generally, historical societies have nice collections of maps, documents, and local history...

Discovering Family History Centers

You are not required to be a member of the LDS church to use a Family History Center the resources contained within them are available to everyone. Keep in mind that the workers at a Family History Center cannot research your genealogy for you, although they're willing to point you in the right direction. To find a Family History Center, use the FamilySearch search interface, which you can find at

Deciding on a storage method

If you're at a loss as to how to start a system, here's one we like We prefer to have both electronic and physical components to our filing system. To establish an electronic system, enter your ancestors' names into your database. Most genealogical programs enable you to enter numbers for each individual. Use the numbers that you create in the electronic system on file folders for paper documents that you collect on each individual. Although we like to scan all our paper documents, sometimes we get behind, so we set up temporary folders in which we can store the documents until we can scan them. After we scan the documents, we transfer them to permanent folders that we keep in a fireproof container. You may consider saving your scanned images to a notebook computer's hard drive, an external hard disk, or a writable CD-ROM DVD-ROM so you can easily transport the images when you go on research trips.

Collecting useful information

For a list of things that may be useful to collect, see Chapter 2. In the meantime, here are a few online resources that identify items to collect for your genealogy edugetstart.cfm Introduction to Genealogy First Steps Getting Started in Genealogy and Family History Get Started in Genealogy Some tips on how to start your family tree research in_genealogy

Lets Talk Hardware Is Your Computer Equipped

As you grow more accustomed to using the information you store in your computer, you may want to consider adding other hardware and peripheral equipment to your system to enhance your genealogy research and the reports that you generate. You may want to start including electronic images of some of the photographs and original documents that you have in your paper filing system. You may think about adding audio of your grandmother reminiscing, or video of your grandchild greeting people at the family reunion. As you find additional documents, you may want to add images of them to your main database as well. So what kind of computer hardware or other equipment do you need in order to include images and other enhancements with your genealogical information You should consider several pieces of equipment as you prepare to enhance your genealogy with audio and video. These include writable CD-ROM or DVD drives, sound cards, video-capture boards, scanners, digital cameras, and external hard...

Trial and Error at the Courthouse

Do you have an ancestor who was on the wrong side of the law If so, you may find some colorful information at the courthouse in the civil and criminal court records. Even if you don't have an ancestor with a law-breaking past, you can find valuable genealogical records at your local courthouse. Typical records you can find there include land deeds, birth and death certificates, divorce decrees, wills and probate records, tax records, and some military records (provided the ancestors who were veterans deposited their records locally). We discuss many of these types of records in more detail in Chapter 5. Canada Canadian Genealogy Centre Land

Personal genealogical sites

The majority of sites that you encounter on the Internet are personal genealogical sites. Individuals and families who have specific research interests establish these pages and they usually contain information on the site maintainer's ancestry or on particular branches of several different families rather than on a surname as a whole. That doesn't mean valuable information isn't present on these sites it's just that they have a more personal focus. An example of a personal genealogical site is the Baker Genealogy Western North Carolina site by Marty Grant ( gen baker.htm). This is just one part of Grant's Web site the other parts deal with other families he is researching. The site includes census transcriptions, a narrative of Grant's findings on his Baker lines, a list of researchers interested in the same Baker families, and other sections that have personal information about Grant. The site is neat and clean, and it is very easy to navigate. (See Figure 4-1.)...

Surnames connected to events or places

Typically, you need to know events that your ancestors were involved in or geographic areas where they lived to use these sites effectively. Also, you benefit from the site simply because you have a general, historical interest in the particular event or location even if the Web site contains nothing on your surname. Finding Web sites about events is easiest if you use a search engine, a comprehensive Web site, or a subscription database. Because we devote an entire chapter to researching geographic locations (Chapter 7), we won't delve into that here.

Narrative compiled genealogies

Narrative compiled genealogies usually have more substance than their exported database counterparts. Authors sometimes add color to the narratives by including local history and other text and facts that can help researchers get an idea of the time in which the ancestor lived. An excellent example of a narrative genealogy is found at The Carpenters of Carpenter's Station, Kentucky at

Letting Your Computer Do the Walking Using Search Engines

The real strength of search engines is that they allow you to search the full text of Web pages instead of just the title or a brief abstract of the site. For example, say that we're looking for information on one of Matthew's ancestors whom we found by using a lineage-linked database George Helm, who lived around the turn of the nineteenth century in Frederick County, Virginia. We could start by consulting a comprehensive genealogical index site (for more on comprehensive genealogical indexes, see Browsing Comprehensive Genealogical Indexes, later in this chapter). There we could look for a Web site with George Helm in the title, or find an abstract of the site. Even if the comprehensive index contains tens of thousands of links, the chances of a Web site having George Helm in its title or its abstract is relatively small.

Understanding genealogical charts and forms

By the time that you have information on a few hundred people, it will become nearly impossible to keep all of those ancestors straight. To make life simple, family historians use charts and forms to organize research and make findings easier to understand and share. Some examples include Pedigree charts that show the relationships between family members, Descendant charts that list every person who descends from a particular ancestor, and census forms in which you can record information enumerated about your ancestor during particular years. Some of these charts and forms are available online at sites like Genealogy Today at

Integrated Genealogical Search Sites

Clearly, search engines and comprehensive genealogical indexes can help you find information online about your ancestors. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if you could use both resources at the same time We're proud to say that one Web site does integrate full-text searching of genealogical Web sites with a comprehensive genealogical index. The site is, drum roll please, Helm's Genealogy Toolbox ( Helm's Genealogy Toolbox is one of the oldest genealogical Web sites growing out of a list of links first placed on the Web in September 1994. The site currently contains links to sites of interest to genealogists along with a search engine that indexes the full text of online genealogical sites. The directory of links is divided into three sections People, Places, and Topics. Searching Helm's Genealogy Toolbox is easy. Here's what you do

Using EMail to Get Help

One of the oldest of the Internet genealogy resources is the Roots Surname List at . The Roots Surname List (RSL) is simply a list of surnames (and their associated dates and locations) accompanied by contact information for the person who placed the surname on the list. So if you want

Finding land records in the United States

Your ancestors may have received land in the early United States in several different ways. Knowing more about the ways in which people acquired land historically can aid you in your research. After the land was recorded, your ancestors may have been required to meet certain conditions, such as living on the land for a certain period of time or making payments on the land. After they met the requirements, they were eligible for a patent a document that conveyed title of the land to the new If your ancestors received bounty lands in the United States, you might be in luck. The Bureau of Land Management, Eastern States Land Office holds land records for public domain land east of the Mississippi River. Here's its site land.html Because the topic of land records is so expansive, many books have been devoted to the subject. When you're ready to tackle land records in more depth, you may want to look at William Thorndale's Land and Tax Records in The Source A Guidebook of American...

Counting on the Census

His father was, but you do know that he was born in North Carolina. By using a census index, you may be able to find a Nimrod Sanders listed in a North Carolina census index as a child of someone else. If Nimrod's age, location, and siblings' names fit, you may have found one more generation to add to your genealogy.

Assigning unique numbers to family members

If you have ancestors who share the same name, or if you've collected a lot of information on several generations of ancestors, you may have trouble distinguishing one person from another. For example, Matthew has an ancestor Samuel Abell, who had a son and two grandsons also named Samuel Abell. To avoid confusion and the problems that can arise from it, you may want to use a commonly accepted numbering system to keep everyone straight. Now genealogical numbering systems can be a bit confusing (and talking about them can be a little boring) but we'll do our best to make it as simple as possible and to give you a few examples to make it a little clearer.

Getting the lowdown on censuses

For a summary of the contents of each United States census return and advice on how to use the censuses, see The Census Book by William Dollarhide ( Heritage Quest). Also, a key to using census records is to know what county your ancestors lived in during any given year. A good guide for this is the Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790-1920 by William Thorndale and William Dollarhide (Genealogical Publishing Company). If you run into abbreviations in censuses that you don't understand, take a look at the Abbreviations Found in Genealogy page at rigenweb abbrev.html.

Finding individuals in subscription indexes

Currently, the largest United States Census population schedule index collections are found on the subscription-based (available to individuals, libraries, and other institutions) and HeritageQuest Online (available only to libraries and other institutions). ( has census indexes for the years 1790 through 1870, generated from print indexes. also has re-indexed population schedules from 1790 to 1870 and from 1900 to 1930. They use the 1880 index produced by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and have indexed the census fragment for 1890. HeritageQuest Online has re-indexed census entries for the years 1790 through 1930. One of the benefits of using a subscription census index is the value-added features that are built into the search mechanism. For example, if we do a search for the same Samuel Abell as we did in the last section on, we see some of the additional features of the search engine. Figure 5-3...

Click the status button for an available census

Some sites contain collections of several census returns for a specific geographic area (over an extended period of time). A good example of this type of site is the Transcribed Census Records for Vernon County, Missouri, at htm, which has several transcribed census returns for the county from 1860 to 1930.

State territorial and other census images

Images of United States censuses are not the only census images available. State and territorial censuses are becoming available online. At the time of this writing, has state and territorial censuses for Colorado (1885), Florida (1885), Iowa (1836-1925), Kansas (1855-1915), Minnesota (1849-1905), Mississippi (1792-1866), New York (1880, 1892, 1905), Washington (1857-1892), and Wisconsin (1895, 1905). It also has images of the U.S. Indian Census schedules from 1885 to 1940.

General information sites

Although the Vital Records Information site doesn't contain any online indexes or records, using it is a good way to become familiar with where each state stores its vital records. Later on, as you locate records on more ancestors, you can use this site as a quick reference for getting mailing addresses for your many records requests.

Scan the results of your query

I Wisconsin Wisconsin Genealogy Index (pre-1907 birth, death, and marriage records) Vital records indexes are available on subscription sites. At the time this book was written, had vital record indexes for the states of Alabama, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. WorldVitalRecords. com had vital record indexes for Connecticut, Kentucky, Maine, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. Both sites also contain vital records collections for specific localities (such as a city or a county).

Investigating Immigration and Naturalization Records

Often the document you're looking for is an immigration or naturalization record. Immigration records are documents that show when a person moved to a particular country to reside naturalization records are documents showing that a person became a citizen of a particular country without being born in that country. Sometimes these documents can prove difficult to find, especially if you don't know where to begin looking. Unless you have some evidence in your attic or have a reliable family account of the immigration, you may need a record or something else to point you in the right direction. Census records are one useful set of records. (For more information about census records, see Counting on the Census, earlier in this chapter.) Depending on the year your ancestors immigrated, census records may contain the location of birth and tell you the year of immigration and the year of naturalization of your immigrant ancestor. 0 3a7858 3a0 To find more information on research using...

Beyond Pleasure and Power

Through this analysis of asceticism in terms of power, Nietzsche attempts to remove the paradoxes that arise from the standard hedonistic accounts of this phenomenon. To the extent that his accounts of both cruelty and asceticism as motivated by a will to power are more satisfying than those that try to account for them as motivated by a drive to maximize pleasure and minimize pain, he supports his case for a psychology of power against the prevalent view of psychological hedonism. Since his On the Genealogy of Morals presents the fullest discussion of these two pivotal topics, it must be viewed as an essential part not only of Nietzsche's theory of value but also of his psychology, which, as I have argued, constitutes the basis for his revaluation of all values. Nietzsche's psychology of power is arguably the richest and most profound expression ever produced of one of the most fruitful hypotheses concerning the ultimate motivations of human behavior.

Nature Does Not Abhor a Vacuum

This essay does not claim to examine the relations between Nietzsche and Wagner in all their complexity. It simply provides a reading of the first few paragraphs of the Third Essay of On the Genealogy of Morals , which Nietzsche dedicates to the ascetic ideal of the artist.

Locating International Sources

Example, if you are beginning to research your Finnish ancestors, you can find a research outline (see Figure 6-1) that contains information on the following items Another place to look for help in getting started is the International Internet Genealogical Society site at index.htm.en. Although the site is currently limited in the areas that it covers, you can find Global Village Representatives that can help you with specific countries. There is also a list of current projects by group members and some online courses that provide an introduction to genealogy in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Germany, and South Africa.

Choose a link to a resource that interests you

On the front page of the Genealogy of Jamaica page, there is a list of resources available on the site. We select the Civil Registration link that takes us to the Civil Registrations of Jamaicans page (see Figure 6-2). The civil registrations page at the Genealogy of Jamaica site. Because international genealogical sites are being added to the Web at a brisk pace, it is a good idea to use general search engines to keep abreast of the current sites. You can use a search term such as Finnish genealogy to get an idea of how much information is out on the Web about the geographic area that interests you. However, keep in mind that such general searches are likely to yield thousands of search results (at the time this book was written, Finnish genealogy yielded 703,000 hits). As we discuss elsewhere in this book (for example, in Chapter 4), you can get more focused results using a genealogically focused search engine such as TreEZy ( or WeRelate ( Of...

Gathering information from England Northern Ireland Scotland and Wales

1 General Register Office ( gro content ) holds birth, marriage, and death records in England and Wales from 1 July 1837 up to one year ago. The GRO Web site details how to get copies of certificates and has some basic guides on researching genealogy. il Imperial War Museum ( chronicles the wars of the twentieth century from 1914. Its Web site contains fact sheets on tracing ancestors who served in the armed forces and an inventory of war memorials.

Getting to German sites

To get a bird's-eye view of available German genealogical sites, a good place to start is ( index_en.html). The site includes homepages for German genealogical societies, general information on research, gazetteer, a ships database, a passenger database, and a list of links to Web sites. ( is a German-language genealogically focused search engine and index to genealogy Web sites. The Generations Network recently launched a new subscription site for German genealogy at provides access to the Hamburg Passenger lists (1850-1934), Mecklenburg-Schwerin censuses (1819, 1867, 1890, and 1900), Bremen sailor registers (1837-1873), and Bremen ship lists (1821-1873).

Remembering French resources

For an overview of genealogy in French-speaking regions, drop by the Franco Gene site at The site features resources for Quebec, Acadia, the United States, France, Belgium, Switzerland, and Italy. If you are not familiar with French surnames, you might want to see how common a surname is in France. At (, you can view the surname distribution of more than 1.3 million names. ( has a small collection of records in its subscription databases. These records include census tables from the French Colony of Louisiana (1699-1732), some French-language local and family histories, and a few marriage and church records.

Using documentation you already have in your possession

When you attempt to geographically locate your ancestors, start by using any copies of records or online data that you or someone else has already collected. Sifting through all of those photocopies and original documents from the attic and printouts from online sites provides a good starting point for locating your ancestors geographically. Pay particular attention to any material that provides a definite location during a specific time period. You can use these details as a springboard for your geographical search. If you have information about places where your ancestors lived, but not necessarily the time frame, you can still be reasonably successful in tracking your ancestors based on the limited information you do have. Aids are available to help you approximate time frames, such as the Period Approximation Chart ( extras tidbits3.htm). For example, say you know the birth dates of your great-great-grandmother's children, but you don't know when great-great-grandma...

Geographicspecific Web sites

Using your Web browser, go to the Genealogy Toolbox at This takes you to a page that lists all Internet sites pertaining to the subdivision you selected that are indexed in the Genealogy Toolbox. Each entry includes a brief abstract of the site and a link to that site you can select sites that sound promising. 1 GENUKI UK + Ireland Genealogy ( is an online reference site containing primary historical and genealogical information in the United Kingdom and Ireland. It links to sites containing indexes, transcriptions, or digitized images of actual records. All of the information is categorized by locality by country, then county, then parish.

The Criticism of Ancient Judaism[17

The Jewish priests excelled in ressentiment and, moved by it, took subtle revenge upon pagan Rome. They distorted all natural values. They spread false ideas about sin, punishment, guilt, a moral world order, compassion and love for one's fellow man as fundamental values. The humble and weak are the good and may expect redemption all people are equal in their indebtedness to the transcendent God and in relation to the values of love and compassion that He demands. (Nietzsche frequently reads Christian doctrine directly into priestly Judaism, even without acknowledging the gap that separated them.) Yet beneath their doctrine of compassion the priests insinuated the vengefulness of the weak-spirited, whose will to power cannot be expressed except in the distorted way of ressentiment as analyzed in the Genealogy . In them, moreover, ressentiment became creative, a value-engendering power it revolutionized Roman (Western) culture by investing it with the values of the slave morality that...

Professional researchers

Professional researchers are people who research your genealogy or particular family lines for a fee. If you're looking for someone to do all the research necessary to put together a complete family history, some do so. If you're just looking for records in a particular area to substantiate claims in your genealogy, professional researchers can usually locate the records for you and get you copies. Their services, rates, experience, and reputations vary, so be careful when selecting a professional researcher to help you. Look for someone who has quite a bit of experience in the area in which you need help. Asking for references or a list of satisfied customers isn't out of the question. (That way you know who you're dealing with before you send the researcher money.) Chapter 11 provides a list of questions we recommend you ask when looking for a professional researcher to hire, as well as provides some steps to follow in finding a professional researcher online.

Mailing lists focusing on African research

When you look for key records that are specific to African ancestral research, it's a good idea for you to interact with other researchers who may already be knowledgeable about such resources. One place to start is the AfriGeneas mailing list. This mailing list focuses primarily on African genealogical research methods. On the Web page for the mailing list (, you find the following resources (see Figure 8-1) i A beginner's guide to researching genealogy This page identifies more than 80 mailing lists of interest to those conducting African-ancestored research. For mailing lists with a little broader focus, see the list at Genealogy Resources on the Internet at jfuller gen_mail_african.html.

Hispanic resource pages on the

The Hispanic Genealogy Center ( is a Web page that the Hispanic Genealogical Society of New York maintains to promote genealogy among Hispanic Americans. For a list of Hispanic resources by location, the Puerto Rican Hispanic Genealogical Society maintains a page of links to genealogical resources at www.rootsweb. com prhgs (see Figure 8-5). The Colorado Society of Hispanic Genealogy ( also maintains a Web site dedicated to people researching ancestors in the Southwest area of the United States (formerly known as New Spain). For resources specific to a country or area, see the following sites

Methodological Self Justification

When Nietzsche attempts to justify his new method metaphilosophically, he sometimes claims that genealogy cuts through deceptive appearances until it sees the phenomena as they really are. This realist claim appears to fall back into metaphysics when the principle of will to power is posited as that which lies behind every phenomenon. Nietzsche sometimes makes this claim by drawing an analogy between genealogy and philology, where by philology he means close, accurate reading. In the preface to the Genealogy he states that the third essay is a paradigm of his own method of reading, and thus an example of how to read him. Presumably the readers of a genealogical analysis will themselves have to practice genealogy in the act of reading. Nietzsche may have developed his own aphoristic style because it requires readers to practice the genealogical method of reading This passage shows the intimate connection for Nietzsche between genealogy and the process of reading and interpreting in...

Nosing through Newspapers Records

There has been a lot of effort to digitize newspapers over the last couple of years. ( has partnered with Newspaper ( to offer a collection of more than 1,000 newspaper databases online. The newspapers featured in the collection are digitized images that have been indexed by optical character recognition (OCR) a software method where letters within an image are translated into characters (typically letters of the alphabet) that a computer can read. Each page of the newspaper is searchable. When a search result is found, the text is highlighted on the page. The optical character recognition system does not always know the context of the words on the page so, the system sometimes generates false positive search results. Figure 9-6 shows the interface for the newspaper collection at The Decatur Daily Review newspaper image at Ancestry .com. The Decatur Daily Review newspaper image at Ancestry .com.

Friendly Word of Caution

Before you embark into the world of molecular genealogy, we want you to consider two things. First of all, by taking a DNA test, you might find out something that you would rather not know. For example, some people have discovered that they are not biologically related to the family from which they've always claimed descent. Sometimes this occurs due to a non-paternal event where the biological father was not the person listed on the birth record (this may have occurred in the immediate family, or sometime in past generations). Others have discovered that they may not have the racial or ethnic composition that they have always identified themselves with. While both of these situations are rare, you need to be prepared just in case it happens to you or to someone you invite to participate in a study. The second thing to remember is that molecular genealogy is a science but not an absolute one. When looking at DNA test results, you are looking at the probability that something is true....

Getting down to bases

When we decided to conduct a molecular genealogy study on the surname Helm, we completed some basic research on genetics. While looking at the many resources available that describe deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, we found one in particular contained a model that helped us understand the basics better it was a publication called DNA Program Kit published jointly by the National Genome Research Institute, United States Department of Energy, and the Science Museum of Minnesota. You can find this publication online at Manual.pdf. We use a modified version of that model to help you understand the components of DNA that are used in molecular genealogy. Please understand that our DNA-library analogy is a very simplistic explanation of the molecular parts that are considered in genetic testing. DNA plays a much more complicated role in genetics than what we just covered. However, for the purpose of this chapter, our basic presentation on genetic structure should be sufficient for...

Finding others with the same results

Similar to Y chromosome testing, you might want to post your mitochondrial DNA results to some public databases. One place to post results is at (see Figure 10-9). If you want to find results of mitochondrial tests performed by the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, see the Mitochondrial Database at mtdna search.jspx. To find more information on mitochondrial DNA scientific databases, check out MITOMAP at and MitEURO at

Getting Out of Your Comfort Zone

We can't emphasize enough the benefits of sharing genealogical data. Sharing is the foundation on which the genealogical community is built. For example, when Matthew began researching his genealogy, he went to the National Archives, Library of Congress, and several regional libraries and archives. Along the way, he found a few books that made a passing mention of some of his ancestors, and he discovered some original records that helped him put some pieces together. It wasn't until he shared his information online that he began to realize just how many people were working on his surname. During the month following the creation of his Web site, he received messages from 40 other Helm researchers one of whom lived in Slovenia Although not all these researchers were working on Matthew's specific branch (only two of the 40 were directly related), he received valuable information on some of the areas that other researchers were working on. Matthew may never have known that some of these...

Making Friends and Keeping Them Online

( is one of the oldest genealogy resources on the Internet and consists of a list of individuals, the surnames they're researching, and where on the planet those surnames are found. (For more information on using the Roots Surname List, see Chapter 4.) Other places to find fellow researchers include query pages on the World Wide Web, newsgroups, and mailing lists. (If you need a refresher on using these or other surname resources, you can find more information in Chapter 4.) After you identify some potential online friends, send them e-mail messages introducing yourself and briefly explaining your purpose for contacting them. Be sure to include a listing of the ancestors you're researching in your e-mail message. Don't disclose personal information that could violate a person's privacy Information such as address, birth dates, and Social Security numbers for living persons is considered private and should not be freely shared with other researchers. Also, we don't...

Joining a Herd Research Groups

If your relatives are tired of hearing about your genealogy research trips or the information that you found on great-uncle Beauford, but you'd like to share your triumphs with someone, you may be ready to join a research group. A good example of a research group is one that Matthew discovered shortly after he posted his first Web page. An individual who was researching one of his surnames on the East Coast of the United States contacted him. After exchanging a couple of e-mails, Matthew learned that this individual was part of a small research group studying the origins of several different branches of the Helm surname. Each member of the group contributes the results of his or her personal research and provides any information that he or she finds, which may be of use to other members of the group. Additionally, the group as a whole has sponsored research by professional genealogists in other countries to discover more about their ancestors there and has spun off a more formal...

Geographical societies

Chapter 7 introduces geography-based genealogical societies as groups that can help you discover resources in a particular area in which your ancestors lived, or as groups in your hometown that can help you discover how to research effectively. However, local genealogical societies can

Gathering Up Kinfolk Using the Family Reunion for Research

You may have noticed that throughout this book, we strongly recommend that you interview relatives to gather information about your ancestors both to use as leads in finding records and to enhance your genealogy. Well, what better way to gather information from relatives than by attending a family reunion Family reunions can add a lot to your research because you find many relatives all in one place and typically most are eager to visit. A reunion is an efficient way to collect stories, photographs, databases (if others in the family research and keep their records in their computers), and even copies of records. You might even find some people interested in researching the family along with you. And a family reunion can be great fun, too.

American Indian Resources

Be able to narrow down your search area and find primary resources to unlock some of the mysteries of your ancestors. Fortunately, the government of the United States did compile some records on American Indians. For example, you can find annual census lists of American Indians, dating from 1885 to 1940, in the National Archives as well as digitized copies of the censuses on (see Figure 8-4). You can also find probate and land records at the federal level, especially for transactions occurring on reservations. You can also find in federal repositories school records for those who attended schools on reservations. Additionally, the Bureau of Indian Affairs has a vast collection of records on American Indians. For more information about American Indian resources available from the National Archives and Records Administration, visit html. 1 The Source A Guidebook of American Genealogy, edited by Loretto Dennis Szucs and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking (Ancestry, Inc.). In...

Blogging for Attention

Blog is a common term around the Internet these days. But what exactly is a blog Blog is an abbreviated name for a Weblog, and it's just what it sounds like an online journal or log. Typically blogs include narratives on whatever topic the blogger (the person who maintains the blog) feels like writing about. Therefore genealogy blogs typically contain narratives on family history research. These narratives are much like the Web boards of years past where people could go and post information about their research findings or There are blogs available about all aspects of genealogy including how-to, news, ethnic-based research, surnames, conferences, technology, and document preservation.

Deciding Which Treasures to Include

Although the content of genealogical Web pages with lots of textual information about ancestors or geographic areas may be very helpful, all-text pages won't attract the attention of your visitors. Even we get tired of sorting through and reading endless narratives on Web sites we like to see things that personalize a Web site and are fun to look at. Graphics, icons, and photographs are ideal for this purpose. A couple of nice-looking, strategically placed photos of ancestors make a site feel more like a home.

Remembering Your Laptop or Notebook

It would be frustrating if you reached your destination and found that you didn't have any of your past findings and leads for research on this trip with you, and you couldn't remember much about the ancestors you set out to research. It's easy to get caught up in packing and meeting departure times, and to forget some of the most important things you need to have with you. We don't expect you to have all of your research memorized, so be sure that you set your laptop computer or your notebook full of family charts, pictures, and notes in an obvious place so you don't forget to take them along. While you're at it, keep a printed copy of the directions you just received from MapQuest (in the preceding section) with your laptop or notebook so you don't forget them either.

Download Instructions for Irish Genealogy Package

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