Federal census records are not the only population enumerations you'll find for ancestors in the United States. You may also find census records at the state, territorial, and local level for certain areas of the United States. For example, the state of Illinois has federal census records for 1810 (one county), 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890 (small fragment), 1900, 1910, and 1920. In addition to these, Illinois has two territorial censuses taken in 1810 and 1818 — and eight state censuses taken in 1820, 1825, 1830, 1835, 1840, 1845, 1855, and 1865. Some city-census enumerations were taken in the 1930s, and a military census was taken in 1862. Other states that have state or territorial census returns include Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
Non-federal census records can often help you piece together your ancestors' migration patterns or account for ancestors who may not have been enumerated in the federal censuses. Sometimes, these censuses can also provide more detail on your ancestors than the federal census schedules can.
Guides that offer information on census returns at the local and state level include Ancestry's Red Book: American State, County and Town Sources, Third Revised Edition, edited by Alice Eichholz (Ancestry Publishing), Your Guide to the Federal Census: For Genealogists, Researchers, and Family Historians, by Kathleen Hinckley (Betterway Books), and State Census Records by Ann Smith Lainhart (Genealogical Publishing Company).
Although state censuses and special schedules from the federal censuses are not readily available on the Internet, there are a few subscription databases online that have some of them. For more information on online subscription databases, flip over to Chapter 4.
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