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And unconcerned, insofar as they have no idea at all what it means to be in pain, to be mortal, to risk life itself for those one loves. If they have no inner, experiential sense of the importance of these matters, they can't help looking a bit clumsy, and even callous, when they deal with them. Pity, as the pro-pity tradition sees it, has certain distinct advantages for human social life. First of all, the beliefs that ground it are (as this tradition sees it) true for it is true that human...

Related Works

Nietzsche's Critique of Judaism. Review of Religion 13 (1938 9) 161-166. Duffy, M. E and W. Mittelman. Nietzsche's Attitude toward the Jews. Journal of the History of Ideas 49(2) (1988) 301-317. Eisen, A. M. Nietzsche and the Jews Reconsidered. Jewish Social Studies 48(1) (1986) 1-14. Golomb, J. Nietzsche on Jews and Judaism. Archiv f r Geschichte der Philosophie 67(2) (1985) 139-161. Lonsbach, R. M. Friedrich Nietzsche und die Juden . Bonn Baurier Verlag, 1985. Neuman, H....

Kathleen Marie Higgins

Nietzsche's Genealogy and James Bond The obsessions of On the Genealogy of Morals are reminiscent of Hollywood's contemporary thrillers. In the Genealogy Nietzsche concocts a brew of violence and voluptuousness, complete with sadistic thrills, sexual deviants, and multiple murders. This summary might as well advertise a James Bond movie. The pleasures to be experienced through control over other people's bodies is a central motif of both. Like a James Bond movie, the Genealogy presents a...

Gary Shapiro

What sort of text is On the Genealogy of Morals , this work that Nietzsche called the uncanniest of all books Is it only a book about morals, as the title might indicate Even the superficial reader will see that much more is at stake, since questions concerning politics and aesthetics are prominent. But could we also read more attentively and with an ear to hearing a certain diagnosis of the metaphysical condition and its tradition that are necessarily implicated in the genealogy of morals...

The Published Works

A strong statement against anti-Semitism appears, not surprisingly, in the Genealogy , the same work in which ancient priestly Judaism is also condemned and for the same genealogical reason. They the anti-Semites are all men of ressentiment , physiologically unfortunate and worm-eaten, a whole tremulous realm of subterranean revenge, inexhaustible and insatiable in outbursts against the fortunate and happy (GM III 14). In Beyond Good and Evil Nietzsche chides the anti-Semites who seek to curb...

New Slave Revolt

Anti-Semitism is a mass movement, ideological and vulgar. As such, it is a popular neurosis that affects weak and insecure people, who are deficient in self-confidence (in contrast to Nietzsche's bermensch or Dionysian individual) and it presents a new kind of slave revolt. A mass movement generally derives its strength from the coalescence of weak individuals 11 joined by an object of common hatred. Moreover, despite his sense to the contrary, the weak individual sinks even lower in the crowd,...

Nietzsche the Jews and Ressentiment

In a volume dedicated to Nietzsche's Genealogy there is no need to dwell on the meaning of ressentiment . My aim in this essay is to see how this key concept (together with another, self-overcoming) functions when applied by Nietzsche to both Jews and anti-Semites. These two polarities haunted Nietzsche throughout his creative life, and occupy a more central place in his thought than is usually recognized. 1 Liberally using quotes, I shall organize this essay as a kind of case file, somewhat...

Robert C Solomon

. . . an act of the most spiritual revenge . . . . It was the Jews who, with awe-inspiring consistency, dared to invert the aristocratic value-equation (good noble powerful beautiful happy beloved of God) and to hang onto this inversion with their teeth, the teeth of the most abysmal hatred (the hatred of impotence), saying the wretched alone are the good the suffering, deprived, sick, ugly alone are pious, alone are blessed by God . . . and you, the powerful and noble, are on the contrary the...

Why Did the Music of Wagner Become Good for Swine

The example of Wagner is a case with which Nietzsche, doctor par excellence of famous diagnostic skills, has been very familiar for quite some time. He has often been consulted regarding this patient, who himself professes to be the right physician for cases of hysteria. Doctor Nietzsche, however, for his part, defends an opposing view to wit, that this patient is a most nefarious danger to the health of women and young people. Has the doctor been consulted Well, rather, he consulted himself...

Sublimation and the Transcendence of Cruelty

A psychological account of cruelty is in itself not a justification of cruel behavior, but rather an explanation of the attractions of cruelty, and consequently of its prevalence in human life. But Nietzsche argues further that our tendency to be cruel and to dominate is universal and ineluctable, and therefore should not simply be dismissed as an immoral and avoidable aberration. To show a tendency to be natural and necessary seems tantamount to justifying it, and Nietzsche has been understood...

The Sources of Nietzsches Anti AntiSemitism Quid Juris

When dealing with an existential thinker like Nietzsche it is, of course, difficult to sever completely the personal from the theoretical. As I have suggested, his overcoming of anti-Semitism must have been assisted by his struggle with such figures as Elizabeth, Wagner, Burckhardt, and by refashioning his love-hate relationships and overt and covert conflicts with them. However, even outside the psychological arena, there is sufficient philosophical anchorage in Nietzsche for his active...

Conclusion

In conclusion I shall emphasize three points. 1. If one grants the Nietzschean position that a decadent artist is always the servant of a philosophy, a morality, or a religion, does this mean that such an art is always condemned to be subordinated to ends other than itself Would art for art's sake in contrast be the distinctive feature of a flourishing art There is nothing to that. In an aphorism entitled L'art pour l'art in Twilight (TI IX 24), Nietzsche shows how the phrase art for art's sake...

Genealogy as Hermeneutics

While Nietzsche's rhetoric sometimes leads him into logical corners he knows he should avoid, his understanding of genealogy contains other ways of avoiding such corners. What I wish to argue is that if he had fully developed his account of the nature of interpretation, he would have come up with the notion of the hermeneutic circle. And since circles have no corners, he could not have backed into the logical difficulties he encounters when he tries to provide metaphilosophical justifications...

Nietzsche as Affirmative Thinker

A crucial question in thinking about the feasibility of Nietzschean genealogy today, then, is how the genealogist can argue for and against particular interpretations, both first-order and second-order. In Nietzsche's terms, how can the genealogist discriminate critically between healthful and sickly interpretations I wish to draw a positive conclusion from my reflections on proliferation, pluralism, and undecidability. A minimal condition of such critical discrimination is that healthful...

Genealogy and Symptomatology

In order to appreciate Nietzsche's idiosyncratic adaptation of genealogy to the history of morality, we must situate genealogy in the shifting context of his critical philosophical project. In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche claims as his critical task the preparation of a typology of morals (BGE 186). 1 In Toward a Genealogy of Morals , he explains that all the sciences have from now on to prepare the way for . . . the solution of the problem of value , the determination of the order of rank...

The Paradox of Asceticism Pain That Is Pleasure

Asceticism presents an even more acute problem for psychological hedonism than does cruelty. Whereas cruelty raises the question of why the pleasures or pains of others should be pleasurable or painful to me, asceticism, hedonistically characterized, seems simply self-contradictory . Both cruelty and asceticism are presented as finding satisfaction in the creation of pain. The satisfactions of cruelty conceived in this way raise the issue of why another's pain should be pleasurable to me, while...

Arb Sistwr B X V

Sister publishes an arrangement of selections from his notebooks of 1883-1888 under the title The Will to Power , and in his name. 1908 Ecce Homo is finally published twenty years after it was written . 1910-1911 First edition of Nietzsche's collected works is published under the supervision of his sister including a greatly expanded edition of The Will to Power . 1935 Sister dies, triumphant in the knowledge that her brother had come to be regarded by Hitler and Mussolini and many others as...

Eagles and Lambs Masters and Slaves Metaphors of Strength and Weakness

That lambs dislike great birds of prey does not seem strange only it gives no ground for reproaching these birds of prey for bearing off little lambs. And if the lambs say among themselves These birds of prey are evil and whoever is least like a bird of prey, but rather its opposite, a lamb would he not be good there is no reason to find fault with this institution of an ideal, except perhaps that the birds of prey might view it a little ironically and say 'We don't dislike them at all, these...

Philippa Foot

In writing about Nietzsche's immoralism I am going to ask a simple question about him, something that is difficult to do it is hard to hold onto anything simple in the face of this determined joker, who loved masks and hidden things, and whose protean style is sometimes of the most lapidary aphoristic simplicity but often lush and rhetorical. It has been said that Thus Spoke Zarathustra should be read as an opera, and it is surely a great shame that we never had a rendition by Anna Russell of...

Arthur C Danto

The third essay of the three which compose On the Genealogy of Morals is, according to Nietzsche's preface to the work, a gloss on its prefixed aphorism, which reads Unconcerned, mocking, violent thus wisdom wants us She is a woman, and always loves only a warrior. What sort of warrior is unconcerned One, I suppose, for whom the means is an end, for whom warmaking is not so much what you do but what you are, so that it is not a matter of warring for but as an end. There is, he tells us in the...

Criticism and Epistemic Privilege

On the Received View, the world we might say is like a piece of infinitely malleable clay, whose contours and determinate lines are all of human making. Such a world would impose no independent constraint on our interpretations of it. The first problem for the Received View is this Nietzsche criticizes certain views on their epistemic merits, and takes his own view to enjoy an epistemic privilege over those he criticizes. The epistemic merits of a view are those bearing on its claim to count as...

Appearance Reality and the Received View

The Received View generates a paradox when juxtaposed with Nietzsche's well-known rejection of the appearance reality A R distinction that is, his rejection of the idea of an unknown and unknowable world, transcending the world of experience compare TI III 6 and IV . On his view, the world of appearing is just all the world there is though it is, of course, no longer a merely apparent world. Yet the Received View, by holding that no view gives a better picture of the world as it really is than...

The Nationalistic Neurosis

Especially in Germany, anti-Semitism was the other Janus face of nationalism, which Nietzsche also opposed as madness and neurosis. Nietzsche attacked both nationalism in general and, in particular, the new German nationalism of his time, then reaching an exalted climax through the unification of Germany under a Prussian Kaiser and Bismarck's Reich . In exposing nationalism as another modern form of the herd mentality, he also identified the context within which German anti-Semitism functioned...

The Conversion of Wagner Parsifal

In Parsifal Wagner's ascetic ideal triumphs one hears its final hatred of life. 22 Parsifal is the innocent, the chaste. Kundry gives the following etymology of his name Foolish and pure I will name you Foolish Parsi Pure and foolish Parsifal Parsifal child of foolish purity. Kundry, under the power of the sorcerer Klingsor, tries to bewitch and seduce Parsifal. She is sensual, yet nostalgic for salvation. In Parsifal, by contrast, love and desire are divorced he can only save Kundry by...

Maudemarie Clark

Although Nietzsche quite explicitly claims to be an immoralist for example, EH IV 2-4 BT P 5 , 1 many serious and sympathetic interpreters have denied that he is. This is understandable because immoralism is a difficult position to take seriously. An immoralist does not simply ignore morality, or deny its fight to our compliance, but claims that morality is a bad thing that should be rejected. Immoralism therefore seems to be defensible only from the viewpoint of a morality, which makes it...