minimal sense (black marks on a page, for instance), but that is an uninteresting sense. We do not read black marks on a page, we read sentences. Texts come to be only in readings and have no existence independent of readings. Of course, the same text occurs in different readings, but there is no special problem as there was for the empiricists in explaining what "same" means. To know two interpreters are talking about the same text even though they read it somewhat differently is just to know that despite their differences, their readings agree for the most part on much of what is going on in the text. The text is the product of a reading, and in the hermeneutical process of reading, interpreting, and understanding there is no mental-physical dichotomy, as well as no problem about a gap between our knowledge and the given.

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