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No wonder, then, that it is precisely in the Genealogy that we read the following passage linking anti-Semitism and ressentiment : this linkage is the genealogical basis for all the rest. No less noteworthily, Nietzsche attacks the anti-Semites as the modern "Pharisees" (whom he confounds with the "Jewish priests").[15] have already cited part of this passage at the beginning of this essay; here it is in full:

This hoarse, indignant barking of sick dogs, this rabid mendaciousness and rage of "noble" Pharisees, penetrates even the hallowed halls of science (I again remind readers who have ears for such things of that Berlin apostle of revenge, Eugen Duhring, who employs moral mumbo-jumbo more indecently and repulsively than anyone else in Germany today: Duhring, the foremost moral bigmouth today—unexcelled even among his own ilk, the anti-Semites). They are all men of ressentiment , physiologically unfortunate and worm-eaten, a whole tremulous realm of subterranean revenge, inexhaustible and insatiable in outbursts against the fortunate and happy. (GM III:14)

Thus in an ironic turn of events, the anti-Semite becomes the legitimate heir of the ancient Jewish priest, from whom he took over as the modern paradigm of the psychology of ressentiment . In the meantime Judaism, fortified by its long trials and self-overcoming in exile, has become a storehouse of positive power which modern Europe badly needs—and which, Nietzsche hopes, will fuel the creation of a higher cultural synthesis in Europe.

What distinguishes the anti-Semite as a modern phenomenon is not only ressentiment but its fusion with the psychology of the masses. The modern mass society compounds the power of ressentiment and provides a new terrain for its expression. The ancient Jewish priests, when performing their revolution in values, worked in relative privacy. Their subtle vengeance against pagan Rome was profound but tacit, almost underground; and its bearers, the early Christians, were a repressed minority with no public voice. In Nietzschean terms, they should therefore be deemed stronger spirits than their genealogical cousins, the modern anti-Semites, who must project their ressentiment into vulgar mass movement as a further (second) precondition for the anti-Semite's ability to affirm himself. Modern anti-Semitism depends on the imaginary power emanating from a crowd united in hatred against an "other."[16] This also means that it must eventually become externally repressive: pogrom and holocaust are its natural expressions.

All of this makes Nietzsche an enemy of the anti-Semite, though not necessarily a "philo-Semite." Characteristically, the Genealogy also contains some of Nietzsche's most critical attacks against Judaism—more precisely, against its Second Temple "priestly" phase, from which Christianity was born. This leads to the second part of my study, which I can only sketch here.

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